Paraeducators in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Education

Appl, D. (2006). First-year early childhood special education teachers and their assistants: “Teaching along with her.” Teaching Exceptional Children. 38, 34-40.

Cathy, Kelly, and Lisa are early childhood special education (ECSE) teachers in inclusive, classroom-based programs. Each of them worked with assistant teachers during their first year as ECSE teachers, and that experience resulted in difficulties of varying degrees. For Cathy, those difficulties were most profound. During her first months of teaching, she expressed feelings of isolation in spite of having an assistant in her classroom. In a telephone interview (11/01/97), she said, “I’m by myself . . . It’s like [I] don’t have anyone to talk to.” When asked about her assistant, she replied, “When I am talking to her, I’m usually trying to explain things, not to get suggestions.”

Banerjee, R., Chopra, R. V., DiPalma, G. (2017). Early intervention paraprofessional standards: development and field validation. Journal of Early Intervention, 39(4), 359-370.

Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of national- and state-level guidance for training paraprofessionals. This article presents the process followed for development and validation of statewide personnel standards for paraprofessionals who work in early intervention settings and the results of this validation study. The development and validation process for these new knowledge and skills competencies followed the process used by Division for Early Childhood and the Council for Exceptional Children for development and validation of personnel standards and K-12 special education paraeducator professional development standards. Challenges, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

Bolton, J., & Mayer, M. D. (2008). Promoting the generalization of paraprofessional discrete trial teaching skills. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23 (2), 103-111.

This study investigated the effectiveness of a brief staff training procedure aimed at promoting the generalization of accurate implementation of discrete trial instruction from the training environment to the teaching environment. Three bachelor’s-level paraprofessionals received classroom training using a training package that included didactic instruction, modeling, general case instruction, and practice with specific performance feedback. Participants were required to meet performance criteria of 98% accuracy or better to exit training. After successfully completing the training program, participants were followed into the treatment environment and shown to maintain a high level of treatment integrity in implementing varied discrete trial programs with children in early intervention and school-age services for periods of up to 23 weeks.

Chopra, R., Banerjee, R., DiPalma, G., Merrill, L., & Ferguson, A. (2013). Colorado’s model for preparing paraprofessionals for rural early intervention programs. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 32 (1), 20-28.

Under the supervision of a licensed early intervention provider, paraprofessionals play an indispensable role in the implementation of home and community-based services to infants and toddlers with developmental delays or disabilities and their families in Colorado. This article shares an example of a statewide model of preparation and training for early intervention paraprofessionals. The outcomes achieved, lessons learned and next steps in the implementation of the model are also presented.

Douglas, S. N., Light, J. C., McNaughton, D. B (2013). Teaching paraeducators to support the communication of young children with complex communication needs. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 33(2), 91-101.

Paraeducators are frequent communication partners for young children with complex communication needs (CCN) in early childhood settings. This study examined the impact of instruction to paraeducators in two communication interaction strategies (IPLAN - Identify activities for communication, Provide means for communication, Locate and provide vocabulary, Arrange environment, use iNteraction strategies and MORE - Model AAC, Offer opportunities for communication, Respond to communication, Extend communication) on the number of communication opportunities provided by paraeducators during play activities with young children with CCN. Results of the study provide evidence that after 2 hr of one-on-one training, paraeducators increased the number of communication opportunities they provided for children with CCN, and children with CCN took an increased number of communication turns. In addition, paraeducators reported that they found the training beneficial, and the supervising teachers noted improvements in the communication support provided by the paraeducators. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

Douglas, S. N., McNaughton, D. B, Light, J. C. (2014). Online training for paraeducators to support the communication of young children. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(3), 223-242.

Paraeducators are frequent sources of support for young children with disabilities in early childhood settings. However, they typically have limited training in providing communication opportunities for children with complex communication needs (CCN). The impact was investigated of providing training in a communication interaction strategy to three paraeducators working with young children with diagnoses of autism and developmental delay. The training included interactive online components as well as opportunities to use and ask questions about the strategy, and reflection on strategy use. After participating in the training activities, the paraeducators were observed to provide a greater number of appropriate communication opportunities during play interactions with the young children. The children with CCN also showed increases in the number of communication acts performed. In addition, paraeducator responses (including comments on child behaviors) increased. Results of social validity and generalization measures are reported. Limitations of the study are also discussed.

Hughes M. T., Valle-Riestra, D. M. (2008). Responsibilities, preparedness, and job satisfaction of paraprofessionals working with young children with disabilities. International Journal of Early Years Education, 16(2), 163-173.

To support teachers with their classroom responsibilities, schools have increasingly turned to paraprofessionals for assistance, with the largest numbers of paraprofessionals employed in the field of special education. Owing to this important role that paraprofessionals now perform in the education of children with disabilities in the USA, we set out to investigate the responsibilities that paraprofessionals working with young children with disabilities had. We were also interested in identifying how paraprofessionals and the teachers with whom they work alongside perceived the paraprofessionals’ level of preparedness for their roles and their job satisfaction. Fifty-two paraprofessionals and 59 teachers of young children with disabilities participated in the study. Overall, both paraprofessionals and teachers indicated that paraprofessionals were generally well prepared for activities they frequently engaged in and both viewed themselves as collaborative members of an educational team.

Killoran J., Templeman, T. P., Peters, J., & Udell, T. (2001). Identifying paraprofessional competencies for early intervention and early childhood special education. Teaching Exceptional Children, 31(1), 68-73.

This article identifies competencies needed by paraprofessionals working in early childhood special education including ways to document various mastery levels. It describes use of the competencies in Oregon’s early childhood special education personnel development program. It explains the process used to identify needed competencies and also reports on a survey of 64 paraprofessionals of their perceived training needs. (Contains references.) (DB)

Lane, K.L., Fletcher, T., Carter, E., Dejud, & Delorenzo, J. (2007). Paraprofessional-led phonological awareness training with youngsters at-risk for reading and behavioral concerns. Remedial and Special Education, 28 (5), 266-276.

This study examined the efficacy of a paraprofessional-led supplemental early intervention for first-grade students with poor early literacy skills and behavioral concerns. The goal was to determine if (a) the relatively brief intervention was effective in improving phonological skills, and (b) improvements in academic skills would be accompanied by behavioral and social improvements. The results indicated that the students in the treatment condition experienced significant, lasting increases in phonological awareness and moderate improvement in word attack skills. However, significant collateral effects on social and behavioral performance were not observed. Limitations and directions for future investigation are offered.

Paris, R., & Bronson, M., (2006). A home-based intervention for immigrant and refugee trauma survivors: Paraprofessionals working with high-risk mothers and infants. Zero to Three, 27(2), 37-45.

This article describes how the Visiting Moms Program in Chelsea, Massachusetts, has taken the paraprofessional model one step further to respond to the needs of refugee and immigrant new mothers, by employing paraprofessional home visitors who are also immigrants or refugees themselves from countries in Central America, South America, and Africa (e.g., Brazil, El Salvador, Sudan, Somalia, and Morocco). This home visiting intervention, located at the Massachusetts General Hospital Chelsea HealthCare Center, demonstrates how paraprofessionals who are also mothers and closely connected to their communities can work effectively with families with multiple risk factors, including trauma. With extensive training and close supervision by a senior clinician and program administrator, the resources of a well-coordinated community health team and outstanding health center, these multilingual/bicultural home visitors provide emotional support, client advocacy within the service system, and education on child development for low income, high-risk immigrant/refugee families.

Rosenberg, S. A., Robinson, C., & Fryer, E. G. (2002). Evaluation of paraprofessional home visiting services for children with special needs and their families. Teacher Education and Special Education, 22(3), 158-168.

This study evaluated the impact of supportive paraprofessional home visiting on mothers and their young children who had or were at risk for developmental disabilities and who were at risk for receiving inadequate parenting. Families were randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Upon exit, mothers in the intervention group rated services as more helpful and demonstrated moderately better mental health than did mothers in the comparison group. Children in the intervention group were more likely to have received an Individualized Family Service Plan. The two groups did not differ in the quality of their home environments, service utilization, or child outcomes. The results of these findings are discussed in terms of the need for direct training of parents and the characteristics of families who can benefit most from the services that paraprofessionals provide.